Articles and Teachings
Historical Proof from Egypt to Moses

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There are a lot of people, some of which I have come upon; those who actually believe Moses never existed, nor any of the plagues of Egypt or even the Exodus from Egypt. I have even heard this exact idea espoused by one of the top Rabbi’s in New York, and another in London! And you contemplate whether or not to believe if they have historically felt themselves empowered to change the bible writings to suit their needs? If you’re entire basis of belief revolves around the idea that all of Torah, Prophets etc. are mere fables; then why not adopt a policy of change as required? For in your eye’s you are not adding or subtracting to any Holy thing at all! These are those who actually believe that all of the stories of antiquity are all completely fabricated. Of course anyone who knows me is already aware that I also agree; some ancient stories are in fact fabricated; with a great many more additions to original texts, and even possibly deletions. And although it’s verifiable that much has been added and changed through so many years and so many editors; it’s astounding to me how even seemingly intelligent people can forget, or just quit believing, that the Eternal Creator did in fact begin with SOME set of instructions for all man! The truth is in there; but to stop believing that there ever was an original truth because it’s difficult to weed through all of ancient and modern man’s extremism; is of itself another kind of extremism. How can one form such opinions without even the most basic research on a matter? If one is pondering the plagues described in the Book of Exodus; whether to prove or disprove; maybe one should consult the Egyptian record? I mean, why would a massive power like Egypt have any record or even an honorable mention of such a thing if it never actually occurred? Surely the Great Egyptian Empire would never have dedicated such a false story to their sacred historical record if it didn’t happen?

Although I will present some of the verified facts, there is much additional proof and evidence which greatly exceeds the scope of this document. I feel it’s time to present some of the evidence that the Plagues of Egypt actually occurred, and where historically accounted for in other ancient historical documents outside, but in parallel to the Hebrew Torah accounts.

It continues to come to my attention with alarming frequency today, that people are both teaching, and others believing; that ALL of the Hebrew scriptural stories are in fact fictitious; with the plagues of Egypt and its subsequent Exodus of the Hebrews never having occurred being among the most prevalent.

Fortunately, there exists an ancient Government papyrus in which the Egyptian Scribal Priest {Ipuwer} presents a lengthy diatribe to the Pharaoh (who certainly is the cause of the Plagues) and in general laments a series of catastrophes that have shaken the core of the nation. The Papyrus of the scribal priest Ipuwer describes the final acts in the downfall of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, an event which began the Second Intermediate Period in Egyptian history and which coincided perfectly with the story of the Exodus recorded by Moses in the Scriptures. The statement in the side bar is critical to comprehending exactly just how important the extensive and exacting record keeping was to the Egyptians.

"The Egyptians believed that writing had been invented by the god Thoth, usually pictured as a scribe with the head of an ibis bird" -

As all scholars agree, nothing was done under the Egyptian government without extremely detailed records and lists, protocols were indispensable even in the simplest matters of business. This mania for writing is not characteristic of the later period only: doubtless under the Old and the Middle Empire the scribes wrote as diligently as under the later Empires. Words, whether written or spoken, were believed to have magical powers. Thus, the scribe played a special role in the kingdom, as he sat and recorded the daily quotas of workers' rations and the results of their labor on their papyrus rolls. Each scribe was taught to write by his father, and held high status among the elites, much of the same status and culture is easily evident within the later Hebrew culture, thus it is evident that this was yet one more cultural aspect the Hebrews brought with them out of Egyptian society; and not indicative of any special command or instruction from The Eternal God for them to follow. Within Egypt, without the assistance of his scribes, even the ruler was of no account, and it was not without good reason that the high officials of the Old Kingdom were so fond of having themselves represented in writing posture; because it was the scribal occupation to which they owed their rank and power.

Thus, after the king, the scribe was perhaps the single most important person in Old and Middle Kingdom Egypt.

In other words, if it didn’t actually happen, they didn’t record it!

"And Pharaoh's servants said unto him: 'How long shall this man be a snare unto us? Let the slaves go! That they may serve their God, Don’t you see that Egypt is destroyed?' (Shemot/Ex - 10:7)

Searching history we quickly discover without much effort actually; Ipuwer, in reflection records one of many very specific scenes. Ipuwer wrote: "that the Nile River was blood." Upon reading the full literal English translation of the papyrus, it is clear that Ipuwer documented an immense disaster which abruptly halted all life and commerce throughout all Egypt. Although the Egyptian language doesn’t lend itself to the English any better than the ancient Hebrew, and although many times the scribes words are few in description, the truths seem to be more in the totality of his many lamentations, as coming from the perspective of a man living within the horrific scene and afterwards.

We have to keep in mind one exceedingly important fact when reading all this, even from the historical Torah data perspective. Ipuwer the scribe lived through all this insanity; Moses did not! Moses, all the Hebrews and even the Egyptians and others enslaved within Egypt who believed what Moses was saying, thus going along with the instructions as given to Moses by God, were ALL protected from everything! This scribe was not! The historical papyrus documentation absolutely portrays the Egyptian version of (most) of the plagues described by Moses in Book of Exodus, but from the perspective of a man who was living among its ongoing massive societal devastation. This man’s perspective is actually more visceral and emotional than that of Moses’s historical Torah accounting. The reader also has to remember; that I am forced to use the English Torah version you know; none of which are very accurate translations; with many more English words added to aid the context which are not present in the ancient Hebrew. So, in actuality, the Hebrew reads far closer to the Egyptian / English translation I depict herein, which again is an extremely literal translation. Keep all this in mind as you go, Two men; writing two accounts of the same devastation; but from two vastly different perspectives. Also, understand, plagues were brought on Egypt, but the amount of plagues, i.e. 10, has been built into the story. If you pay close attention, even in the English, one can count even 11 or 12 plagues, or even only 9. The murder of all 1st born male children & animals, appears to be added in later, after it occurred by the hand of the Hyksos invasion, and not by God.

Moshe writes: "All the waters that were in the river were turned to blood,"

Ipuwer writes: "The River is blood,"

Moses writes: "the hail smote every herb of the field, and broke every tree of the field." Ipuwer writes: "Trees are destroyed" and "No fruit or herbs are found..."

Moshe writes: "there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt."

Ipuwer writes: "The land has no light."

Verses common to both Hebrew & Egyptian sources go on to tell of Egyptians searching frantically for water, the death of fish and loss of grain, massive destruction of trees and crops, plague upon the cattle, a great cry throughout the land, loss of commerce, consuming fire, darkness, pillage of wealth by escaping of slaves, etc. Another point of contention always seems to be the question of what actually happened with Pharaoh? Moses did not specifically say that the pharaoh had perished in the Sea, but Ipuwer lamented the king's disappearance at the hands of slaves under circumstances that had never happened before. In my attempt to find other non-Torah related sources, I was interested to see if the 1st son of Abrahim, Ishmael, and his people, relayed any information to this historic account through the prophet Mohammed; so I asked a friend who is a teacher of Mohammed, Samir said –

Greetings brother, According to the Holy Quran, the Pharaoh drowned when the Red Sea parted to the wish of Moses (peace be upon him); although it appears his body - (Pharaoh’s), would be preserved by Aleh/Ehyeh..;-) in order that later generations would see this sign. Some also say he lived on longer then the death at the Red Sea because in the book of Moses (peace be upon him); it never really says if he lived or died, and because all kings (pharaohs) where all titled pharaoh no matter what their real name was, it appears to remain a question to who this Pharaoh was. I attach for you the account. Salem Aleichem. SK

(The Quran 10:90-92)

"We brought the Children of Israel across the sea and Pharaoh and his troops pursued them out of tyranny and enmity. Then, when he was on the point of drowning, he (Pharaoh) said, I believe that there is no god but Him in whom the Children of Israel believe. I am of those who submit (to Allah). What! Now! Indeed you disobeyed before and you were of the mischief-makers. This day will We save you in your body, that you may be a Sign to those who come after you! But surely, many among mankind are neglectful of Our Signs."

I have to say, this Quran text is quite interesting, especially in light of the fact that many scientists within archeology from many countries believe this is in fact speaking about the Pharaoh of the Exodus. The near perfectly preserved body was found in 1898, and it is said to be the most well preserved human corpse ever found, but all remain clueless as to how it could have been

preserved that well since it was never prepared as all other royal bodies were prepared; Which to me begs the question of how it was preserved at all. I don’t submit the following information as absolute fact, nor do I believe the original Arabic or English translation of the text to be as originally stated. As I have found some translations of this Quran text that quite obviously add the statement - (who is the God of the Muslims), in the same place as we see above in this version where - (to Allah) was also added after the fact. So, no scribe is exempt.

However the extensive forensic autopsies of this body do prove it to have died from drowning in salt or brackish water, and the dating of it does appears to place it within the correct time frame:

Dr. Maurice Bucaille is an eminent French surgeon, scientist, scholar and author of "The Bible, The Quran and Science" which contains the result of his research into the Judeo-Christian Revelation and the Quran. It is a unique contribution in the field of religion and science. Being an outstanding Scientist, he was selected to treat the mummy of Merneptah (Pharaoh), which he did. During his visit to Saudi Arabia he was shown the verses of the Holy Quran in which Allah says that the dead body of the Pharaoh will be preserved as a "Sign" for posterity. "So this day We shall deliver your (dead) body (out from the sea) that you may be a sign to those who come after you! And verily, many among mankind are heedless of Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.)." (The Quran, 10:92) An impartial scientist like Dr. Bucaille, who (also being a Christian), was conversant with the Biblical version of Pharaoh's story as being drowned in pursuit of Prophet Moses. He was pleasantly surprised to learn that unknown to the world till only of late 20th century, the Holy Quran made definite prediction about the preservation of the body of that same Pharaoh of Moses' time. This led Dr. Bucaille to study the Holy Quran thoroughly after learning the Arabic language and accepted Islam as the truth. The body of Pharaoh is now lying in a Cairo museum as an open miracle of the Holy Quran, for those who pay heed to the signs of Allah. Source: Partially taken from "The Origin of Man", by Dr. Maurice Bucaille.

Moving on to the documented Egyptian accounts:

Ipuwer writes: "Behold, the fire has gone up on high, and it’s burning goes forth against the enemies of the land" Obviously he isn’t referring to some fire which is aiding Egypt against her enemies here. As scholars identify; this was Ipuwer referring to the pillar of fire, which guided the Israelites and came against their enemies.

Referring to the king's death in the Red Sea: Again, I don’t personally believe that the actual identity of this Pharaoh is an all important factor in proving the legitimacy of the Exodus story, however many people still continue to attempt to root out this information, so I will touch on it here. And although Moses did not say the king himself had perished, only his army, never the less, we have to continue to remember, that Moses spoke from his protected perspective on the far side of the water and obviously not able to see all things from his location.

Never the less, we find this obscure accounting at: Naos of el-Arish, which is a shrine found on the border between Egypt and Palestine, which records: "his majesty of Shou" gathered his armies to fight "the companions of Apopi - the god of darkness=(Passover). Neither the king nor his army survived:

The bible perspective: Did Pharaoh die in the Red Sea or just his army?

(Exodus 14:23-28): "And the Egyptians pursued and went after them into the midst of the sea, all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen. Now it came to pass, in the morning watch, that the LORD looked down upon the army of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and cloud, and He troubled the army of the Egyptians. And He took off their chariot wheels, so that they drove them with difficulty; and the Egyptians said, "Let us flee from the face of Israel, for the LORD fights for them against the Egyptians." Then the LORD said to Moses, "Stretch out your hand over the sea that the waters may come back upon the Egyptians, on their chariots, and on their horsemen." And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and when the morning appeared, the sea returned to its full depth, while the Egyptians were driving into it. So the LORD overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the water. Then the waters returned and covered the chariots, the horsemen, and all the army of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them. Not so much as one of them remained."

(Psalms 106:9-11):"He rebuked the Reed Sea also, and it dried up; So He led them through the depths, As through the wilderness. He saved them from the hand of him who hated them, And redeemed them from the hand of the enemy. The waters covered their enemies; There was not one of them left".

(Psalms 136:13-15): "To Him who divided the Reed Sea in two, For His mercy endures forever; And made Israel pass through the midst of it, For His mercy endures forever; But overthrew Pharaoh and his army in the Reed Sea, For His mercy endures forever."

(Nehemiah 9:10-11):"You showed signs and wonders against Pharaoh, against all his servants, And against all the people of his land. For You knew that they acted proudly against them. So You made a name for Yourself, as it is this day. And You divided the sea before them, So that they went through the midst of the sea on the dry land; And their persecutors You threw into the deep, As a stone into the mighty waters."

Of course, none after Moses is an eyewitness account, but we have to always remember, later contributors were writing from the original protected perspective that Moses and the tribes found themselves in, and not from the Egyptians perspective of living through all this massive destruction of everything they knew and held dear. If your country today was ravaged by multiple plagues, only then to be invaded and completely overrun, with most of its population killed off, and all cities destroyed, which of course means all commerce has ceased and no one left alive is eating etc.. Thus, if you were living through that, and wrote about it while inside of it; don’t you think your version of events might differ from the more clinical version of the same events that were written about your situation by an outsider living in total protection somewhere else?

In all Exodus passages, the emphasis is on the fact that Pharaoh's army was destroyed, but none specifically state that Pharaoh was with his army. Only in Psalms 136:15, and other outside parallel sources do we find a specific statement that Pharaoh was destroyed with his army; and since Psalms differs from the original accounts that Moses depicted; one might assume that these much later Hebrew scriptural accounts like the Psalms of King David time, may have actually come from an Egyptian or other regional source. Either way, it’s evident it came from another source other than Moses, since it doesn’t match. Thus it appears via other regional sources, which I continue to reiterate, had no reason to document such things as truth in their own holy books or historical records if such events never occurred, much less making specific scribal contributions which directly describe in very specific language, that in fact this particular Pharaoh did die in the Sea during his pursuit of the Hebrew slaves. Which to me alludes to the understanding, that the rest of the Exodus story was so obviously matter of fact for all ancient peoples of that region; that the many particulars of these events aren’t even dwelled on, only its high points. This also makes sense within the known ancient tradition of oral transmittance of information. The stories are purposely kept short, highlighting the events major details for ease of transmission and continued accuracy.

Who exactly was the Pharaoh of the Exodus?

The older pharaoh who was in power when Moses fled Egypt died while Moses was gone - (Exodus 2:23). The next pharaoh continued to oppress the Hebrews. Moses returned to Egypt and appeared before Pharaoh with a sign of a staff turning into a snake. This pharaoh had two magicians named Jannes and Jambres who as we all know tried to simulate the same. God sent several non-lethal plagues over several months. Roughly, 2,000,000 Hebrews and Egyptians left Egypt from Rameses and Sukkoth. They went thru the wilderness to Etham on the edge of the desert then to Pi-hahiroth. Pharaoh with his army caught up to them there at which point the Hebrews crossed the water but the pursuing army, (possibly) including Pharaoh, drowned, as we are already aware from other accounts.

Therefore, since Pharaoh was long believed to have died in the water, it was long believed his body was not recovered or mummified, therefore the gap must exist within the Egyptian records I would assume. His eldest son also died, but more likely, because of the Hyksos/Amalekite invasion, thus, he did not ascend the throne. It is even possible that this pharaoh was the last in his family line. Egypt was also without an army for some time after this, which left them open for the Hyksos/Amalekite invasion; which the Egyptian record more clearly shows they did not believe to be yet another plague, but an opportunistic invasion! In addition, although it may appear obvious to most of you, I would like to reiterate again, Kings don’t mobilize entire armies to chase fictitious hordes of people through a wilderness. As already stated, many scholars have attempted to identify the pharaoh of the Exodus based on the biblical data alone. Finally, science and scholars are correlating the Hebrew Torah plagues to the Egyptian historical accounts of the Ipuwer Papyrus. Before I move on to which Pharaoh may be behind curtain #1, I would like to point something out which has always seemed to be painfully obvious to me, but evidently lost on the certain educated people until this very day. Many educated idiots within the archeological sciences at the highest levels continue to go their entire careers in search of Hebrews in ancient Egypt, only to find nothing, and use this lack of evidence to disrupt the faith of all believing people by marketing their lack of findings, which has more to do with their collective lack of ability.

They create their new ideas into certain proofs that the Hebrew people, their slavery and Exodus from it by the literal arm of God, never happened or existed. How could it possibly be that such accredited individuals and even the schools that back them could be so infinity lacking you ask? Because these faith killing halfwits are searching for HEBREWS in Egypt! They dig and they toil and they spend countless millions of dollars on expedition after expedition, digging and sifting and cataloging parts and pieces of pottery & skeletons, and BEHOLD! No hint of a Hebrew in Goshen! No hint of a Hebrew in Sukkoth; no Hebrews under any rugs anywhere! Pray tell! What can this mean other than, STOP looking for Hebrew’s among Egyptians you morons! They were there for over 400 years! They were no longer Hebrew! No trace could be found, because they were all completely assimilated into the Egyptian culture! My god I pray you paid for your own educations…

Forgive my negative tone concerning these halfwit’s. I have no issue with people digging up the past for education purposes. I do however take serious issue with the same, who use their lack of findings and ability to disrupt the faith others by marketing this lack as some newfound fact.

The possible identities currently on the table for this pharaoh are:


This is the proposal by Immanuel Velikovsky. I am unable to identify him further though Velikovsky places him at the end of the middle kingdom which would be about the 13th dynasty.

Neferhotep I

This identity is made by David Down. Neferhotep is a pharaoh of the 13th dynasty. The chronology of the 13th dynasty is difficult to untangle. Down places him as the last pharaoh of this dynasty before the Intermediate Period dominated by the Hyksos whom he identifies with the Amalekites as per Velikovsky who first proposed this. Neferhotep's corpse has not been identified.

Amenemhat IV

Alan Montogomery suggests that this is the pharaoh of the Exodus. Amenemhat was earlier than Neferhotep, the former belonging to the 12th dynasty, though possibly not by many years.

Amenhotep II

Curt Sewell proposes this pharaoh of the 18th dynasty. This is consistent with his identification of Moses adoptive mother as Hatshepsut, also of the 18th dynasty. My major issue with this is that Amenhotep's body has been identified..ooops! Sewell claims that while the army is at the bottom of the Red Sea, the pharaoh did not follow them in and thus survived. While Exodus does not specifically state that pharaoh dies (though it is a reasonable inference), Psalm 136 does. Ka-Ankh-Re, which in Greek would be Cencheres. Donovan Courville identifies a 13th dynasty pharaoh by this name. Neferhotep is also known by his throne name Khasekhemre and his brother Sobekhotep IV has the throne name Khaneferre; both names having some resemblance. Courville suggests that Brugsch identified Ka-Ankh-Re as Sobekhotep IV (or V). Charles Taylor agrees with Courville on KaAnkh-Re being the pharaoh of the Exodus.

Dudimose I

Or Tutimaeus. This is suggested by Barry Setterfield based on Manetho who gives this pharaoh as the last one before the invasion of the Hyksos. Again the relationship to the other pharaohs is not immediately apparent because of the messy state of affairs with ancient Egyptian chronology and the multiplicity of names. Setterfield states Dudimose comes after Khaneferre whom he places at the time when Moses flees Egypt.Menrenre

Nemtyemsaf II

Bruce Alan Killian suggests that the long reign of Pepe II corresponds to the birth and life of Moses for the first 80 years. He suggests that Pepe's successor was the pharaoh who pursued the Hebrews and died in the Red Sea. He does not mention the pharaoh by name so Nemtyemsaf is my guess. Pepe II reigned during the 6th dynasty.


Although as we see there has and continues to be a wide range of speculation, no one has been able to conclusively pin this King down. So, either this King was just not one of the more noteworthy Pharaoh’s, or as some conclude, the records regarding this King, as well as life in that era were mostly lost due to the Hyksos/Amalekite invasion which began against the Egyptians immediately after the Plagues occurred because of their weakness.

We know that there were several destructive plagues in the months prior to the Exodus and the Egyptian economy was devastated; there was a mass exodus of slaves and natives from Egypt, with Pharaoh and his army lost in the Red Sea. The record shows that the documentation of the 13th dynasty is mostly lost, which is not unexpected if it ended with the plagues the Torah depicts, along with the subsequent invasion directly afterwards which surviving records depict. Although I would love to have absolute verifiable proof of the name of this pharaoh, I don’t believe not having it really changes the fact which history proves out, being the events as we have them in Torah literally occurred.

The plagues

In the Bible, the plagues and the parting of the Red Sea are miracles – acts of God working through nature. Can any of them be explained scientifically? Scientific experts such as climatologists, oceanographers and volcanologists suggest that there is evidence that a string of natural events triggered phenomena that could explain the story of the plagues and the parting of the sea. My question is; when did anyone ever suggest that it was not a string of natural events? Albeit events driven by The Eternal One.

The ten plagues

1st plague - river turned to blood

2nd plague – Dead fish

3rd plague - Frogs

4th plague - Gnats

5th plague – Flies

6th plague - boils

7th plague – burning hail

8th plague - locusts

9th plague – darkness

Of course many will not agree w/my plague assessment here, however, only because most are stuck on attempting to force the 10 as they were taught. The Hebrew, and even the English can be divided into more or less than 10.

Although scientifically plausible; and given that many atheists continue to use it to disprove God; the {Pfisteria} theory can provide one explanation of the first six plagues. I however believe it equally, if not more plausible, that the God of all creation, would in fact utilize that creation to get His point across when needed. Just because we can now possibly identify a seemingly natural cause for such things, does not mean it was not the creator behind the event. Not to mention, I believe these atheist scientists never seem to take into account the short time frame this all is known to have occurred in. This event was not a protracted evolution of compounding environmental issues piling up over time. It is plainly understood from the Egyptian record alone that this all took place in a matter of months; not years. However, the following is an occurrence, which others tend to relate as being one and the same occurrence, and use it as proof against the main Exodus plagues:

In 1999 an environmental catastrophe happened in the town of New Burn, North Carolina. The residents woke up to find the waters of their river - the Neuse - had turned red. More than a billion fish died. People working near the river found that they were covered in sores.

The cause of this was found to be pollution. The pollution had come from a pig farm further up the river. Millions of gallons of pig-waste had found its way into the river, causing a genetic mutation in a marine micro-organism called pfisteria; turning it from harmless into lethal. The river had been poisoned.

John Marr, an epidemiologist specializing in environmental disasters, believes pollution in ancient Egypt could have caused the first six plagues. Pfisteria, or something like it, caused the fish to die, thus turning the river red; the pollution would have driven the frogs onto the land, on land the frogs would die, causing an explosion of flies and lice. The flies could then have transmitted viral diseases to livestock, killing them.

What about Moses?

Was there ever a man by this name doing the exploits that we are taught and believe? Was he truly of Hebrew lineage; led down a river in a basket and found by Egypt’s most powerful queen, to be raised as her own, in the court of Ramses the Great? Well, I am not overly positive about the whole river float expedition; as I have identified that this specific tale was quite prevalent in their time; just as leaving an unwanted infant in a basket on some church doorstep is in our times. That being said, there is enough Egyptian record to proves that boys from other surrounding cultures were brought into the Kings family for schooling at very young ages, and brought up in the Kings house as his own family, and it appears in the 13th dynasty, this was a most prevalent

custom. Interestingly enough, for as long as there have been historians and museums in Egypt, there has been statues of guess who? Moses! Of course we all know ancient governments hell bent on living forever via stone monuments, do not go to the trouble of producing massive statues of people who never existed. Much less for an enemy of the State, like Moses, the king of the Hebrews! Nor is it in the modern Egyptian government’s best interest to perpetuate false stories like these, especially when the story pertains to the Hebrews being held captive and made slaves in their country; and the direct cause of its eventual downfall.

Queen Neferu-ra was the name of Hatshepsut in her early years. There is a statue of her and a child named Senmoshet in the Cairo museum. Apparently, for a brief period Moses also held the title of Thutmose II. There is a statue of Thutmose II in the Cairo museum. The face on the statue is not one of a native Egyptian, and has been known throughout recorded history as being the Semitic Moses – Thut-mose.

Again I reiterate, it would have been much better for the Egyptian government to just rename the statue and hide its long history of being known as Moses. Egyptian history also depicts that shortly after the Hebrew Exodus, all statues of Moses and his mother were brought down and removed, some of which have obviously been recovered.

Moses records: 7:20 "…all the waters of the river were turned to blood." 7:21 "...there was blood though out all the land of Egypt …and the river stank". 7:24 "And all the Egyptians dug around the river for water to drink; for they could not drink of the water of the river." Ipuwer records: "Plague is throughout the land. Blood is everywhere." "The river is blood." "Men shrink from tasting - human beings thirst after water." "That is our water! That is our happiness! What shall we do in respect thereof? All is ruin!"

Moses records: 9:23-24 ...and the fire ran along the ground... there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail, very grievous. 9:25 ...and the hail smote every herb of the field, and broke every tree of the field. 9:31-32 ...and the flax and the barley was smitten; for the barley was in season, and flax was ripe. But the wheat and the rye were not smitten; for they were not grown up. 10:15 ...there remained no green things in the trees, or in the herbs of the fields, through all the land of Egypt.

Ipuwer records: "Indeed, gates, columns and walls are consumed by fire." "Lower Egypt weeps... The entire palace is without its revenues. To it belong [by right] wheat and barley, geese and fish." "Indeed, grain has perished on every side." "Indeed, that has perished which was yesterday seen. The land is left over to its weariness like the cutting of flax."

Moses records: 9:3 ...the hand of the Lord is upon thy cattle which is in the field... and there was a very grievous sickness. 9:19 ...gather thy cattle, and all that thou hast in the field... 9:21 And he that did not fear the word of the Lord left his servants and cattle in the field. Ipuwer records: "All animals, their hearts weep. Cattle moan..." "Behold, cattle are left to stray, and there is none to gather them together." In these we begin to see the cattle were not killed off, but scattered and gone.

Moses records: 10:22 And there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt Ipuwer records:

"The land is without light." Moses records: 12:29 And it came to pass, that at midnight the Lord smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive that was in the prison. 12:30 ...there was not a house where there was not one dead. 12:30 ...there was a great cry in Egypt.

Here is where I depart with the Torah record. There is no doubt in my mind that IF in fact God wiped out all of the first born in one shot, that this scribe wouldn’t have made that fact exceedingly clear, and the Egyptian record in no way shape or form up-holds that account. My personal feeling is that later, when Moses or others found out about the Hyksos invasion, and the subsequent mass murder of most of Egypt’s children, they then wrote this into the account as occurring within the framework of all the other non-lethal plagues. My hypothesis is further up-held by the fact that this story originates within the newest Priestly scroll text stories within Exodus chapter 12.

The following is Ipuwer’s account of the same: Ipuwer records:

"Indeed, the children of princes are dashed against the walls." "Indeed, the children of princes are cast out in the streets." "The prison is ruined." "He who places his brother in the ground is everywhere." "It is groaning throughout the land, mingled with lamentations." Upon reading the full Ipuwer account, the above text falls well within his descriptions of the new invasion and further destruction and takeover of Egyptian society, and not within the framework of the preceding plagues.

Moses records: 13:21 ... by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night.

Ipuwer records:

"Behold, a fire has mounted up on high. Its burning goes forth against the enemies of the land."

Moses records: 12:35-36 ...and they requested from the Egyptians, silver and gold articles and clothing. And God made the Egyptians favor them and they granted their request. Thus they drained Egypt of its wealth. Ipuwer records:

"Gold and lapis lazuli, silver and malachite, carnelian and bronze... are fastened on the necks of female slaves." Some of you have already heard me state that the only thing I know and believe about coincidences is, that they take an enormous amount of planning! Moreover, the texts above only begin to touch the surface of all that exist. I would like to point out a very real concern that exists, and amazingly to me, even exists within the Quran scriptures as depicted earlier. This specific concern is expressed many times throughout all Hebraic history, and that is, if you don’t live this life in The Eternal Creators original truth, with all vigor and seriousness during the time you have in this life, you will be treated exactly as Pharaoh was treated during his last insincere gasp of sudden feigned faith while going down under the water for the final count. As even the Quran text shows this final but sudden conversion to believing and finally admitting The Eternal Creators sovereignty over all gods and peoples won’t save you. Only living His instructions as best as you can find them through continual and unceasing searching, will find you worthy of more than any man of Pharaoh.

Why didn’t Pharaoh believe sooner? Did he have people around him feeding him false internet information that led him to disbelieve? Did he have high Rabbinical or Christian clergy members teaching him that all Egyptian or Hebrew histories were false and mere fables? It really does not matter what the time or reasons are the result is the same. It will not matter why you decided not to believe, or why you quit believing and walked away, your answer will be the exact same answer Pharaoh received. Which to me, if memory serves, the Christian texts even state something similar: "Depart from me you who are without Torah".

Emmanuel Velikovsky – 1895-1979; A man of many talents and highly respected in more than one field of science, was quite right to connect the two accounts between Egypt’s records and the Torah. Velikovsky wrote: ["It is my opinion that the Egyptian record of the plagues, as set forth in this papyrus, and the biblical passages dealing with the plagues are so similar that they must have had a common origin."]

However, in my reading of both accounts they also seem to overlap. What I mean is, rather than both accounts being in perfect synch, simultaneously describing the same events in lockstep or order; it appears that Moses recorded Act 1: being the initial devastation of Egypt for their disobedience. Act 2: After which we have the escape of the Israelites at the hand of God which Ipuwer also described in parallel with Moses. Then, Act 3: The further destruction and enslavement of Egypt shortly afterwards by the Hyksos/Amalekites army on the heels of the Hebrew Exodus. Now, the great corroborating evidence is: Of the Amalekite army being on their way to overtake Egypt during Egypt’s greatest time of weakness, coupled with the historical account in the Torah of the Hebrews battling the Hyksos / Amalekites at Rephidim after crossing the Reed Sea! Now, of course we know that the Hebrews didn’t do battle against the entire Amalekite army, this must have been maybe a smaller advance guard or flank guard on the outskirts of the larger main force as it moved through the area on their way to Egypt, which in fact as related in the Torah by Moses, that they came upon the Hebrew encampment and fought. However, this absolutely provides a further link of proof between the two accounts within both historical records.

The Ipuwer papyrus was one of the most important documents in the history of the world's early literature. It was, as far as we know, the first true example of free speech in the ancient totalitarian world at a time of national crisis. Many scholars and authors have referred to it in their writings and listed it in their handbooks and encyclopedias, but few have truly understood what it really was. Of those scholars who did; an American James Henry Breasted and the German Adolf Erman seem to have had the most to offer. In addition, it was Velikovsky who first viewed it in the light of its place in Hebrew history by its obvious relation to the Exodus from Egypt.

The setting of the papyrus perfectly matches the situation leading up to the Exodus. The downfall of the Middle Kingdom began at the inception of the Exodus. Cyril Aldred in 1961 harkened back to the First Intermediate Period (to which he, in common with everybody else at the time, assigned Ipuwer) and observed, ["With Egypt divided against its self, there was the inevitable immigration of foreigners into the rich pastures of the Delta. Famine in their own lands always drove Libyans and the wandering Semites of Sinai and the Negeb to graze their flocks on the borders of the Delta in the manner of Abraham and Jacob..."]

Ipuwer stated that the Asiatics had been assimilated into the Egyptian culture and held positions of authority. This, too, is in keeping with the situation at the close of the Middle Kingdom. Although enslaved by this time, the Hebrews and other Semitic peoples had long been assimilated into the Egyptian civilization, and some held positions of authority as Egyptian records clearly depict, just as in the tradition of Joseph Ben Jacob. From the early second millennium B.C., Asiatic names, most of them household servants, appeared in Egyptian records. The Brooklyn Papyrus alone, from the 13th Dynasty reign of Sebekhotpe III, lists 79 household slave names of which 45 are northwest Semitic.

Ipuwer writes: "In his reign, for what cause I know not, a blast of God smote us; afterward, unexpectedly, from the regions of the east, invaders of obscure race marched in confidence of victory against our land. By main force, they easily seized the rulers of the land, they then burned our cities ruthlessly, brought to the ground the temples of the gods, and treated all the natives with a cruel hostility, massacring some and leading into slavery the wives and children of others." (Sounds like a scene from about 400yrs ealier?)

It appears quite obvious we have been taught incorrectly by all the clergy experts for some time. As with all men who ignore the Eternal Creator and His righteous instructions; when they are finally left unprotected because of their own Free Will decisions to ignore His original instructions which we call (Torah); other men on the same negative path come against them as we see here with Egypt’s final destruction & enslavement via the Hyksos - Amalekite army. Thus, was it GOD who enacted their final destruction and enslavement, or was it by their own hand, their own negligent Will?

The 13th Dynasty may not have come to a complete termination with the Hyksos invasion, however, Egypt continued to wield only local power under the Hyksos/Amalekite enslavement and rule, although it eventually died out altogether.

Lamenting about their dire situation after the plagues and now after invasion: Ipuwer writes, "The door-keepers say: 'Let us go and plunder'. The confectioners... The washerman refuses to carry his load... The bird-catchers have drawn up in line of battle... The inhabitants of the Delta carry shields. The brewers...sad. A man regards his son as his enemy. Confusion one another. Come and conquer; judge...what was ordained for you in the time of Horus, in the age of Ennead... The virtuous man goes in mourning because of what has happened in the land...out goes the tribes of the desert, Egyptians everywhere.

"Indeed, the face is pale; ...what the ancestors foretold has arrived in fruition..."

"Indeed, slaves have become owners of our wealth, and he who could not make sandals for himself is now the possessor of riches." The plagues have already devastated the land, the Sons of Jacob have escaped across the Red Sea, after which the Hyksos/Amalekites have entered Egypt in their brutal lust for blood and conquest.

The government has been overthrown and the rich have been despoiled: Ipuwer laments, "There is violence and mass slaughter: "Indeed, hearts are violent, pestilence is throughout the land, blood is everywhere, death is not lacking, and the mummy-cloth speaks even before one comes near it"

Ipuwer looks out at the Nile and writes: "Indeed, the river is still blood, yet men drink of it. Men shrink from human beings and thirst after water."

Evidently the spoiled water lasted some time with far worse things to come: Ipuwer writes, "Indeed, crocodiles are glutted with the fish they have taken, for men throw themselves to them of their own accord." (Suicide).

Death is everywhere: "Indeed, men are few, and he who places his brother in the ground is everywhere." "Indeed, the desert is throughout the land, the nomes are laid waste, and barbarians from abroad have come to Egypt."

All commerce has ceased after the plagues: Ipuwer writes, "None indeed sail northward to Byblos today... They come no more; gold is lacking...and materials for every kind of craft have come to an end. The seed of the Palace has been despoiled. How often do the people of the oases come with their festival spices, mats and skins, with fresh rdmt-plants, grease of birds." "Indeed, Elephantine and Thinis of Upper Egypt, (but) without paying taxes owing to civil strife. Lacking are grain, charcoal, irtyw-(fruit), nwt-wood, and brushwood. The work of the craftsman.. gone are the profit of the Palace. To what purpose is a treasury without its revenues?... That is our fate and that is our happiness! What can we do without it? All is ruin!"

Ipuwer laments, on to describe the misery around him: "Indeed, laughter has perished and is no longer made; it is groaning itself that is throughout the land, mingled with complaints... Indeed, great and small say: 'I wish I might die.' Little children say: 'He should not have caused me to live.'

Ipuwer Laments further: "Indeed, the children of princes are killed, and the children on our necks are laid out on the high ground."

The verse above about children of the royalty being killed, and a later verse about others children as well being laid out in the streets, is where most have incorrectly thought this to refer to the killing of the 1st born plague again. However, actually at this point in time Ipuwer is lamenting about the slaughtering of the children under the knife of the Hyksos/Amalekites raiders. Although the text is almost the same as the earlier text which both Jewish and Christian clergy have identified as referring to the death of all first born Egyptian males, at this point in time, which is clearly after the plagues, it is more obviously referring to the invasion.

Ipuwer writes, "Indeed, that has perished which yesterday was seen, and the land is left over to its weakness like the cutting of flax" Some could take this text to be figurative; referring to the world Ipuwer knew, but more than likely its still referring to the devastation wrought by the plagues before the subsequent invasion.

Ipuwer writes about: The Documentation of Egypt's records being destroyed and its secrets revealed: "Indeed, the private council-chamber, its writings are taken away and the mysteries which were in it are laid bare. "Indeed, magic spells are divulged; shmw- and shnw-spells are frustrated because they are now known by men." "Indeed, the laws of the council-chamber are thrown out; indeed, men walk on them in the public places and poor men break them up in the streets."

It appears these historical texts give us a good indication of why so many details regarding this period in Egypt’s history are vague, the halls of records were destroyed. Good thing they backed up their system by hiding some papyrus and carving on large immovable stones as well.

There are many more parallels and proofs of the Exodus in both Egyptian record, as well as other regional peoples in that area of the world. Maybe the greatest proof is that for 4 000+ years’ Hebrew people and families have sat down at the Passover Seder and reiterated the memorial story of this slavery and Exodus to our younger generations in the exact same way, and 7 days of eating unleavened bread. An unbroken chain of memorial observance through commanded tradition, within all our houses, throughout all generations, as a memorial sign between us and The Eternal Creator of all things seen and unseen. For one reason and one reason only; to show Him through our continued obedience to His original and everlasting Torah; that we are His people, and that He is our only ONE Creator.

I truly hope this document aids those who have for one reason or another been turned off or away from their walk in His original truth. No writing or understanding from anyone can change the mind or heart of those who have lost all their confidence in any specific book or idea. However, this quick overview was compiled in order to prove the basis of at least one of, if not the most awesome endeavor of The Eternal God and His dealing with men as it was recorded in our Torah and other societies of the day, a belief that you may have formerly held dear to be truth.

Some of you may remember me asking; "How many lies or glaring contradictions do you have to identify as such in the bible, before you are forced to finally admit that the whole has been corrupted; and certainly not at ALL the original word of God?" …

Now I ask you to see the obverse side: "How many verifiable truths within historical accounts which do not contradict The accounts of Moses, will it take before you are forced to see that there is in fact an original and undefiled truth within the whole; and most assuredly worth your returning to it?"

Dr. Asher Th.D ©2009

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